If this were a textbook, pronoun usage would take two chapters, actually.


because there’s what the pronouns ARE, which is easy to explain, then there’s how to use them, which isn’t quite as easy until you pick it up.


Take, for instance, the English sentence “He has a book”. 


You have the main points there: He. He has something. And a book is what it is.

In Garundi, the same sentence in “traditional” fashion would be “Un liberon pa ‘abino”

             which is literally “A book he has.”


Now, take this English sentence, “(you)* Give the book to him.”

In “traditional” Garundi, it would be “Ðu liberon pa gebila.”

            which is literally “The book, him give”            or technically     “(The) (book) (him ) (you give)”


The point of all that was that, in Garundi, there is no specification between he and him, she and her, and such

the pronouns are used the same way.


The same is true for posession:

English: “That is his book”

“Traditional” Garundi: “Liberon panali ðuna adino”

Literal: “Book his that is”

“Simplified” Garundi**: “Liberon panali ðunadino”


*When a verb in Garundi is conjugated, the grammatical person is implied. 

For example: take the English sentence “I have a dog”.

When expressed in Garundi, all that needs to be said is “Un kanil ‘abilé” [“(A) (dog) (i have)”]. Or to “simplify” things, you could even say “Kanil’abilé”. From the constructed verb “kanil’abii”, meaning to have a dog. See how versatile this language is?


**Simplified Garundi is what happens if you max out the agglutinative properties of the language. Technically, any sentence that could be expressed in one sentence without commas can be expressed in Garundi in one word. 

Take for example “Adenipiratilé!”, which literally means “I am on fire!” in English.

*** kanila’abii. whoops


In developing my conlang, i have invented many conventions and rules to make the learning process as easy as possibleeven to those who may not be all that keen on learning new language. 


This little write up is a demonstration of the grammatical gender system in this languages, and the pronouns that can be produced, and even invented. Yes, Invented.


So let’s go.


Garundi has, pretty much, the same pronoun chart we do:


                                singular                plural

1st person                     talé                   matalé

2nd person                    talo                   matalo

but here is where shit gets really interesting

3p masculine                 pa                        mapa

3p feminine                    ma                       mama*

3p neuter                       na                         mana

3p indeterminate**       sa                        masa

ok, still boring and typical. here’s the fun part]

3p masc > fem              patelama***          mapatelama 

3p fem > masc             matelapa               mamatelapa

3p masc > neu              patelana              mapatelana

3p fem > neu               matelana               mamatelana

3p neu > masc             natelapa               manatelapa

3p neu > fem               natelama               manatelama


all the third person pronouns can still be omitted in sentence if necessary, like if it’s implied by whom is being talked about:



* “mama” is also used to denote “mother”, much the same as in most languages; however, technically “mother” in Garundi is “mataron”

** the indeterminate gender is used in place of an analog for “his or her”. Example: Instead of saying “Era nominatino un sasalon panali o manali” [“Everybody picks his or her own seat”], it would be “Era nominatno un sasalon sanali”, making shit a hell of a lot easier to type.

*** [pa-tela-ma “he-to-she”]. You see how this works


**** “Sasalon sanali era nominatino”